28

   -
    -
     
.       
      -
 ,     
,     
  [1].   -
   
      -
  ,   
,   -
  ()    [2, 3].  -
    
      
,    [4].
  ,    -
      , 
   
[5].      
 .  ,   -
      
      .  
    
  «»,   -
    
    .  
    -
-239      ,  
   -
      -
     
 -239 [6].
 ,    
«»      -
  [7].    
   -239  
   «»    -
       -
      
   . 
    -
   [8, 9].
  
    
 1948–1958.  (1901–1940  -
)    -239  -
,    -
   «» [10],   
2009 .    71,2%  -
  53,3%   (– 66,2%),  -
       
[4].     - 
      -
  «»    -
 [11].    -239 
.. , .. , .. 
 239    
        
-    , ,  . E-mail: tvi@subi.su
 ..– ..., ..., .    ;  ..– ..., ..., .  
;  ..–     

:    -239       «»   -
               
 .
  :       «» 1948–1958.     -
-239    3478 .,    2414  (1739   675 )  1064  (604
  460 ).     -239     
             
        .    
  STATISTICA.
:,     -239      -
      5,2      6,6   ,    –  6,9  
   7,7   .            4,2
    2,7  –  ,    –  6,2   3,0 .   
       ,  ,      
,     -239.      -
-239    ( )        
     ,    .       , -
             .  
 –     ,      
 ,   -239.
 : когорта работников ПО «Маяк», плутоний‑239, органы основного и неосновного депонирования, опухолевые
и неопухолевые причины смерти, возраст смерти, возраст найма на работу, продолжительность жизни
: 30.10.2016.   : 20.02.2017
    . 2017.  62. 2  
DOI 10.12737/article_58f0b95734e699.63790534
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    . 2017.  62. 2  
     
     «
2008»,    --
  [12].  -
   -  
-239        -
      «» 
  [9].
      -
       -
    [13],    -
   . 
      
     -
-239,     ,
..    ()  10
5
-
   ,   
,  :
  105 .- = /×100000,
:  –      -
     2009 ;  – 
- .
    (-
  )   
 ( -9)     (-
     )  
( )  . 
,       
   .    
, ..        -
   ,  
    -
    . , 
    
 1959       -
    62,8  71,1 ,   
24 – 44,1  51,7  [14].  
,  ,   24   
     68,1  75,7 -
,    5 .
     -
  STATISTICA 10.0.
   
  ,    
 «» 1948–1958.   -
    
, .. ,      ,
 –   -239   
     --
 [9].    -239  
     
-.
    
   5  
 (n = 468–469)     -
 -239.     -
   .    . 1,
   -239  -
     -
, ..      (
 5,2),     (  6,9).
      -
   ,    
   (     -
 ),     -
 -239   (
   6,6     7,7). 
,     
  1959.,  -
     -
      24,2  25,6 
   24,8  25,6    
43,9  42,7     50,9  50,2  -
  [14].    , 
       
Таблица 1
   ()       
-239  
Группы по содержа‑
нию плутония‑239
в организме, кБк
n
Год рождения ПЖ, лет
Сокращение
ПЖ, лет
Возраст найма
на работу, лет
ПЖ после нача‑
ла работы, лет
Сокращение ПЖ
после начала
работы, лет
Мужчины (n = 1739)
1-: <0,200
313
1925,5 69,6 ± 0,54 24,2 ± 0,32 45,4 ± 0,48
2-: 0,200–0,525
362
1925,6 67,7 ± 0,49
b
1,9 24,4 ± 0,33 43,3 ± 0,45
b
2,1
3-: 0,526–1,070
350
1925,5 67,2 ± 0,50
b
2,4 24,2 ± 0,29 43,0 ± 0,46
d
2,4
4-: 1,071–2,710
354
1925,1 66,7 ± 0,52
c
2,9 24,7 ± 0,32 42,0 ± 0,50
d
3,4
5-: >2,710
360
1922,8
d
64,4 ± 0,58
d
5,2 25,6 ± 0,34
38,8 ± 0,55
d
6,6
Женщины (n = 604)
1-: <0,200
155
1926,4 74,6 ± 0,66 24,8 ± 0,44 49,8 ± 0,58
2-: 0,200–0,525
107
1925,6 73,4 ± 0,86 1,2 25,4 ± 0,53 48,0 ± 0,73
a
1,8
3-: 0,526–1,070
118
1926,4 72,9 ± 0,74 1,7 23,7 ± 0,47 49,2 ± 0,73 0,6
4-: 1,071–2,710
115
1925,6 72,2 ± 0,82
a
2,4 25,1 ± 0,51 47,1 ± 0,77
b
2,7
5-: >2,710
109
1924,0
d
67,7 ± 1,19
c
6,9 25,6 ± 0,49 42,1 ± 1,16
d
7,7
:         :
a
– p <0,05;
b
– p <0,01;
c
– p <0,001;
d
– p <0,0001–0,00001
30
      . 2017.  62. 2
,   68,1 68,3    
75,7  75,8  , ..   -
.       
 (  )    -
 -239   
 (  4,2     2,7 
).      
     6,2  -
  3,0 –   (. 2).  ,
        -
    -239 
    , .. -
    1-  
  2,7  2,4 ()   3,2  1,7
( )  (. 1  2).
    4-  5- 
     -239 
 ( 1,069 )  1- 
    
    ,  
,    . 3,  -
     
  . 
      3-  4-
   ,   5-  
  .  ,   
. 3,    3-   -
    
  ,  4-  – -
    -
Таблица 2
   ()     (  )  
 -239  
Группы по содержа‑
нию плутония‑239
в организме, кБк
n Год рождения ПЖ, лет
Сокращение
ПЖ, лет
Возраст найма
на работу, лет
ПЖ после
начала работы,
лет
Сокращение ПЖ
после начала
работы, лет
Мужчины (n = 2414)
1-: <0,200
504 1929,8 70,8 ± 0,36 22,9 ± 0,23 47,9 ± 0,34
2-: 0,200–0,525
520 1929,8 69,4 ± 0,38
b
1,4 23,4 ± 0,25 46,0 ± 0,37
c
1,9
3-: 0,526–1,070
488 1929,1 68,8 ± 0,40
c
2,0 23,3 ± 0,24 45,5 ± 0,39
d
2,4
4-: 1,071–2,710
466 1928,6 68,5 ± 0,44
c
2,3 23,8 ± 0,26 44,7 ± 0,44
d
3,2
5-: >2,710
436 1926,6
d
66,6 ± 0,54
d
4,2 24,9 ± 0,30 41,7 ± 0,55
d
6,2
Женщины (n = 1062)
1-: <0,200
251 1927,9 75,6 ± 0,45 23,6 ± 0,32 52,0 ± 0,42
2-: 0,200–0,525
195 1927,7 75,1 ± 0,54 0,5 23,7 ± 0,36 51,4 ± 0,50 0,6
3-: 0,526–1,070
209 1927,4 75,2 ± 0,50 0,4 23,2 ± 0,31 52,2 ± 0,49 0
4-: 1,071–2,710
201 1926,9 75,0 ± 0,55 0,6 23,9 ± 0,34 51,1 ± 0,56 0,9
5-: >2,710
206 1926,2
c
72,9 ± 0,75
b
2,7 23,9 ± 0,32 49,0 ± 0,80
c
3,0
:   ,    . 1
Таблица 3
 ( 10
5
.-)    (, )       
    -239        
 
 
   -239  , 
1-:< 0,200
2-: 0,200–0,525 3-: 0,526–1,069 4-: 1,070–2,708 5-: >2,708
 10
5
.-
, 
 10
5
.-
, 
 10
5
.-
, 
 10
5
.-
, 
 10
5
.-
, 


376,9
68,2 455,7 66,3 454,9 65,8 542,5
b
66,2 880,0
d
62,7
c
  
107,7
64,7 138,0 65,3 139,6 66,5 216,0
b
65,5 511,5
d
62,8
 
269,2
69,6 317,7 66,7 315,3 65,5 326,5 66,7 368,5 62,7

919,6
70,2 1057,7 68,2
a
1121,4
a
67,7
b
1157,0
a
67,0
b
1100,0 65,1
c
  
33,1
70,1 46,0 72,8 72,1 66,8 57,6 71,0 99,0
a
64,4
 
886,4
70,2 1011,7 67,8 1049,4 67,8 1099,4
a
66,8 1001,0 65,1
 
1296,5
69,6 1513,4
a
67,7
b
1576,3
a
67,2
c
1699,5
c
66,7
c
1980,1
d
64,4
d
- 
24142
23920 22204 20830 18181


298,8
71,5 279,4 70,0 284,1 70,5 272,6 64,6
b
475,5
a
62,3
c
  
23,0
72,3 20,0 82,5 0 87,6
a
65,4 336,8
d
61,6
 
275,8
71,4 259,4 69,0 284,1 70,5 185,0 64,2 138,7
a
65,0

888,8
75,6 788,2 74,6 797,4 73,7 847,0 74,6 604,3
a
72,0
a
  
23,0
73,3 49,9 68,8 27,5 69,3 29,2 72,3 79,3
a
62,3
 
865,8
75,7 738,3 74,5 769,9 73,9 817,8 74,5 525,1
c
72,0
 
1187,6
74,6 1067,5 73,4 1081,6 72,9 1119,7 72,2
a
1079,8 67,7
c
- 
13052
10023 10910 10271 10094
:   ,    . 1
31
    . 2017.  62. 2  
.       -
   2–5-    
  -239.
      
 ,    -
     -
   5- .    
    
  ,   -
    
    (. 3). 
     -
    4-   -
      
    
   . 
     
5-  ,     -
    , 
      -
 .  ,   
   ,    -
       
   . -, 
   ,   5-  -
 ό      -
    
  ,  , 
,     -
, ,    . 3,  
 .   ,  
       
      .
   ,    -
     
,     -
 -239    
.      -
     0,200  
      (2- )
  0,525       (3-
).  ,     ,
      -
      -
     
,   ,    -
,       ,
 (. 3).
    
     2–5-  -
  1- ,   
   ,   
    2–4-   
   5- ,   ,   
 (. 4).    
,    ,
     (5,5
   9,2  )    -
  (5,1    3,6  -
).      -
     
,   , , – 
  .   -
  ,    ,   
     -
  .   
   ,   , -
   -239,  
   .
Таблица 4
   ()        
    -239        
 
 
   -239  , 
1-: <0,200
2-: 0,200–0,525 3-: 0,526–1,069 4-: 1,070–2,708 5-: >2,708

:
68,2 
–1,9 –2,4 –2 –5,5
  
64,7 
+0,6 +1,8 +0,8 –1,9
 
69,6 
–2,9 –4,1 –2,9 –6,9
:
70,2 
–2,0 –2,5 –3,2 –5,1
  
70,1 
2,7 –3,3 –0,9 –5,7
 
70,2 
–2,4 –2,4 –3,4 –5,1
 
69,6 
–1,9 –2,4 –2,9 –5,2

:
71,5 
–1,5 –1,0 –6,9 –9,2
  
72,3 
+10,2 0 –6,9 –10,7
 
71,4 
–2,4 –0,9 –7,2 –6,4
:
75,6 
–1,0 –1,9 –1,0 –3,6
  
73,3 
–4,5 –4,0 –1,0 –11,0
 
75,7 
–1,2 –1,8 –1,2 –3,7
 
74,6 
–1,2 –1,7 –2,4 –6,9
:        2–5-    
 1- 
32
      . 2017.  62. 2
 ,   -
      -
  «»,  
-239.     
     : -
     , ..
 .   , 
  . 5,  .   
     -
  ,    2005
2013.     
   (232,6–237,7   
171,5–178,0    100 .),    -
  3,2  2,8  [15, 16]. 
     -
       -
     
   [17].   -
    ,  -
    -239
      
   «»,   -
. ,      -
   , ,  
     
    .
 ,     -
      -
    ,
   ,     
  ( 76  83%)  -
   , ,  ,
       -
    [18].
      -
  (. . 2)    
    
 , , 
   . ,  
      
73,6 ± 0,19    78,0 ± 0,18–  ,
..    (p <0,001),   
(67,1 ± 0,24  72,5 ± 0,39 ).  
       -
  (21,0 ± 0,12  21,9 ± 0,15 ;
p <0,001),    (24,6 ± 0,14  24,9 ±0,22 -
).      
      69,2 
  75,6  ,     
  (67,8  75,4 ), 
    -
  ,  ,     -
,      .
    
    «».   -
     
     -
    
[19, 20],      
     
  , -, -
      
   ,   
     , .. 
  [6, 7, 21].
    -
 ,    -
  ,    .
    -
     -
  –   
  ()– potential years of life
lost (PYLL), .. ,    
 ,   -
,       -
  [20].    
        -
  [23, 24].

1.    -239 
    «» -
     
 5,2      6,6   ,  
Таблица 5
           
5-      -239      
  
 



    
:

  
  

  
 
 
   
:
 
  
  

  
 
 
   
 

   
:   5-   1- 
33
    . 2017.  62. 2  
 –  6,9     7,7  -
.    (  ) 
     
 4,2     2,7   ,  -
  –  6,2  3,0 .
2.     -
 -239    
«»     -
      -
 ,    
     
     -
   .
3.   
     
   , .. -
      ,
    , .. 
.
 
1.  103 : .  .   . ..-
  .. .– .: .   «». 2009.
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..   .– .: -
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.– .: . . 2005. 416 .
8.  ..,  ..,  .. -
       
«» 1948–1958   // . . -
. 2014. 3. . 46–60.
9.  ..    
    //   -
. 2015. . 94. 3. . 56–60.
10.  ..,  ..,  ..  -
.     -
  «» // . .  . .
1998. . 43. 6. . 43–57.
11.  ..,  .,  .  
   «»: , , -
 // . . . 2000. 2. . 52–58.
12. Khokhryakov V.V., Khokhryakov V.F., Suslova K.G. et al. Mayak
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13.  ..,  ..,  ..  .
    .  
50 // . . . 2002. 1. . 28–45.
14.     www.demoscope.ru/
weekly/ssp/rus_ltmenu.php (22.09.2016).
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. 2006. 561 .
16.   , 2014: . . – .:
. 2014 http://www.gks.ru/bgd/regl/B14_16/Main.htm
(30.09.2016).
17.  ..,  ..    
      
      
 //    -
 :   V  -
    .– -
:    . 2014. . 159–163.
18.  ..,  ..,  .. 
     
      
  //  
,     -
       
. -    
      
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34
Pu-239 Incorporation and Lifetime Reduction in Mayak PA Workers
with Tumor and Non-Tumor Related Death
V.I. Tel’nov, F.D. Tretyakov, P.V. Okatenko
FSUE Southern Urals Biophysics Institute of FMBA of Russia. Ozyorsk, Chelyabinsk region. E-mail: tvi@subi.su
V.I. Telnov– PhD in Medicine, Senior Researcher, Deputy Director on Scientic Work; F.D. Tretyakov– PhD in Medicine, Senior
Researcher, Head of Department of Radiation Safety; P.V. Okatenko– Head of the Laboratory of Radiation Epidemiology Unit
Abstract
Purpose: Assessment of the impact of Pu-239 incorporation on Mayak workers lifetime based on the analysis of mortality and age in
death at tumor and non-tumor diseases taking into consideration the main and secondary radionuclide deposition organs.
Material and methods: e cohort of Mayak workers hired from 1948 to 1958 with known Pu-239 body burden was included into the
analysis. e cohort comprised 3478 individuals including 2414 men (1739 deceased and 675 alive) and 1064 women (604 deceased and
460 alive). Depending on Pu-239 incorporation the lifetime as integral characteristic of the increased and premature mortality was assessed
based on the analysis of the mortality and age of death in tumor and non-tumor pathology of the main and secondary deposition organs.
Statistical analysis was performed using STATISTICA soware.
Results: It was found that with the increase of Pu-239 incorporation in the organism of the deceased workers a decrease of lifetime
occurred by 5.2 years in men and by 6.6 years in women, and aer starting work– by 6.9 years in men and by 7.7 years in women. In the
whole cohort the decrease of lifetime was less expressed– by 4.2 years in men and by 2.7 years in women, and aer starting work– by 6.2
and by 3.0 years correspondingly. We found the increase of levels of mortality from tumors in males, mainly from malignant neoplasms of
the lung and liver, which are organs of Pu-239 main deposition. For the rst time the associated with Pu-239 incorporation decrease of age
at death (premature mortality) was found in case of tumor and non-tumor pathology of main and secondary deposition organs both for
males and females. At that, unlike increased mortality, premature mortality was registered at all studied causes of death as a signicant shi
or tendency.
Conclusion: e conclusion was made that increased and premature mortality are two relatively dierent processes leading to the
reduction of lifetime of professional workers exposed to the incorporation of Pu-239.
Key words: cohort of Mayak PA workers, Pu‑239, organs of main and non‑main deposition, tumor and non‑tumor causes of death, age at
death, employment age, lifetime
Medical Radiology and Radiation Safety. 2017. Vol. 62. 2 Radiation Epidemiology
DOI 10.12737/article_58f0b95734e699.63790534
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